# WHAT COLOR T-SHIRT SHOULD YOU WEAR ON A HOT, SUNNY SUMMER DAY?

### WHAT COLOR T-SHIRT SHOULD YOU WEAR ON A HOT, SUNNY SUMMER DAY?

Science - Grade 6-8

### Objectives

Experimentally measure the relative amount of light absorbed by various colors using the BOSON Temperature Sensor. Develop an explanation as to why certain color clothing can increase or decrease our perceived degree of warmth or coolness when playing outside.

### Standards

Science - Grade 6-8

NGSS - NEXT GENERATION SCIENCE STANDARDS - MIDDLE SCHOOL (MS)

Matter and Its Interactions - MS-PS1-3

Energy - MS-PS3-3

Waves and Their Application in Technologies for Information Transfer - MS-PS4-2

From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes - MS-LS1-8

Engineering Design - MS-ETS1-3

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS

ELA/Literacy: RST.6-8.3, RST.6-8.7

Mathematics: MP.2, MP.4, 6.SP.B.5, 7.EE.3

COMMON CAREER TECHNICAL CORE STANDARDS

Science & Mathematics Career Pathway (ST-SM)

Apply science and mathematics to provide results, answers and algorithms for engineering and technological activities.

Apply science and mathematics concepts to the development of plans, processes and projects that address real world problems.

Analyze the impact that science and mathematics has on society.

Apply critical thinking skills to review information, explain statistical analysis, and to translate, interpret and summarize research and statistical data.

INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION STANDARDS

Empowered Learner 1a, 1b; Knowledge Constructor 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d; Innovative Designer 4a, 4d; Computational Thinker 5c

### Activity

Imagine it’s a hot summer day. The sun is shining, there’s no breeze and there are no clouds in sight. You wonder which of your many short-sleeved t-shirts you should wear today as you will be playing outside all day. Will you choose your favorite navy-blue t-shirt with dragons, your multi-colored striped one, white-colored one with pale pink polka dots, or a bright yellow one? Too many decisions!

● Explore this question by taking a poll of students in your class.

● Copy the chart below into your notebook.

● When completed, discuss the poll results with students sitting near you.

● Why do you think the t-shirt with the most votes would be the best t-shirt to wear outside?

● List a few reasons from your discussion which support the results of the poll.

### Explore

In this activity your group will use a variety of colored pieces of paper and measure the amount of light absorbed with  the BOSON Temperature Sensor. The group will then work together to graph the data from your experiment and develop a set of guidelines which will explain how clothing color can help to keep you cool or warm when you are outside.

### Activity Procedure:

STEP 1
Using the rectangular prism net template in the Student Resources section, cut out one net for each colored sheet of construction paper.
STEP 2
Assemble a rectangular prism for each colored sheet of construction paper leaving one of the ends open.
STEP 3
Set the rectangular prisms aside.
STEP 4
Attach the BOSON Battery Holder to the BOSON MainBoard-110. (Make sure the BOSON MainBoard-110 is turned off.)
STEP 5
Use 1x small BOSON cable and connect the BOSON MainBoard-110 to the BOSON Display Module.
STEP 6
Use 1 long BOSON cable and connect the BOSON MainBoard-110 to the BOSON Temperature Sensor.

### Experiment

1.Rectangular prisms must remain in the shade until they are being used for testing.

2.Move your first rectangular prism into the sunlight.

3.Place the BOSON Temperature Sensor inside the prism and tape the lid shut.

4.Turn on the BOSON MainBoard-110 and adjust the Display Module to display Temperature in ℉.

5.Start the timer and record the temperature at the end of the 1st minute, 2nd minute and 3rd minute.

6.Turn off the BOSON MainBoard-110 and move to the shade for a minute.

7.Repeat Steps 2-6 for each additional rectangular prism.

8.Disconnect all BOSON equipment and place it back in the BOSON box.

### Data Record

Copy the Data Table below into your notebook.

### Explain

Making Sense of the Data:

Create a Multi-Colored Line Graph according to the directions below:

1.Use graph paper and plot your results for each color. Use a different color that matches the color of the construction paper for each line. The manipulated variable is the color and the responding variable is the temperature.

2.The manipulated variable is graphed along the X axis and the responding variable is graphed along the Y axis.

3.Use the variables to give your graph a title.

4.Include a legend for your graph.

Create a Bar Graph according to the directions below:

1.Use the temperature data for all colors at the 3-minute reading.

2.The manipulated variable is the time and the responding variable is the temperature.

3.The manipulated variable is graphed along the X axis and the responding variable is graphed along the Y axis.

4.Use the variables to give your graph a title.

5.Include a legend for your graph.

Data Analysis:

In your groups discuss the following questions:

1.Examine the the various lines on the Multi-Colored Line Graph.

a.Identify and discuss two similarities and two differences from the data.

b.Which two lines appeared to be the farthest apart? Which two lines seemed to be the closest together?

2.Examine your Bar Graph.

a.Which color recorded the highest temperature reading at 3 minutes?

b.Which color recorded the lowest temperature at 3 minutes?

c.Were there any colors for which the temperatures were close together at 3 minutes?

3.How might your results have changed if you repeated your experiment on a day when the temperature was the same but the sky was overcast?

### Elaborate

Vocabulary:

● Electromagnetic Waves - the entire range of wavelengths or frequencies of electromagnetic radiation extending from gamma rays to radio waves and including visible light

● Visible Light - the narrow band of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum which is visible to the eye

● Absorption - the process by which light is taken in and converted into energy

● Reflection - the process by which light bounces off of an object

Science Background:

The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be neither created or destroyed, only changed in form. Where do you think the energy comes from to cause the temperature to increase as shown on your graphs? If you answered the sun then you were correct. Light energy emitted from the sun strikes the rectangular prism and is changed to heat energy. How does this happen? Why was not the temperature increase the same for the different colors?

When light strikes an object it can do one of three things: it can be absorbed by the object, it can be reflected by the object, or it can be transmitted through the object. In this experiment you looked at how much heat was absorbed by the rectangular prisms.

Visible light is a small part, a narrow band of electromagnetic waves within the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Wavelengths of visible light include the light we are able to see and are known as the ROYGBIV (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) band of electromagnetic waves. Each color is associated with a unique wavelength.

Every object absorbs some light. The rest of the light is reflected back off the object and we see the object as a certain color. When we perceive an object as white we are really looking at an object that is reflecting all the wavelengths of the visible light spectrum. Conversely, when we perceive an object as black we are really looking at an object of which absorbs all wavelengths from the visible light spectrum and no light is reflected back to our eyes.

An object that appears blue to us is an object that absorbs all visible light except blue light which is reflected off the object. An object that appears red to us is an object that absorbs all visible light wavelengths, except the red light wavelengths which are reflected off the object.

Light energy that is absorbed by an object is changed to heat energy. The more light energy that is absorbed, the more heat energy is produced.

### Evaluate

Consider the following questions:

1.After reading the material above, explain why some colors tested resulted in higher temperatures than others when exposed to light.

2.You notice a person wearing a green and blue striped shirt. In terms of light absorption and light reflection explain why the shirt appears green and blue when sunlight strikes the shirt.

### Extend

● Using the information from this lesson write an audio script, create a comic strip or a short video, or create a skit which will help a 5-year-old child choose a t-shirt to wear.

● Research new technologies associated with materials that claim to keep a person warm on a cold day or cool on a hot day. Many of these technologies are used in athletic apparel. How do these materials work? Research how light is absorbed or reflected by other materials. Design a chocolate candy bar wrapper which would keep the chocolate from melting when exposed to the heat of a summer’s day.

Student Resources:

Rectangular Prism Net