Interfacing Fingerprint Sensor with Arduino

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This is r307 fingerprint sensor which has a UART interface for communication, let's enroll and test some fingers.

 

Interfacing Fingerprint Sensor with Arduino

Things used in this project

 

Hardware components

HARDWARE LIST
DFRobot Fingerprint Sensor
Arduino UNO

Software apps and online services

 

JLCPCB EasyEDA

Story

 

In this tutorial, we are interfacing the fingerprint sensor with Arduino. Let’s explore the working of R307 fingerprint sensor. Here I will show you how to enroll the fingerprint inside the Flash of sensor and finally we will match the fingerprints using a separate program and try to glow the onboard Led. These are two simple programs that can be modified for different purposes in future.

 

 

Here we are using Arduino UNO for interfacing, and we can use the UART (Serial communication port) because sensor support this interface. UART is the same port which is used to program the Arduino. There is only one serial communication bus (8-bit), to get the data readings on serial monitor and to interface the sensor in parallel Arduino UNO supports a software serial function.

 

 

For any prototype project you can use JLCPCB, China based PCB manufacturing company providing 5pcs of 2layer PCB in just $2. JLCPCB just launched the RF PCB and Flex PCB in very low prices, get you hand on best prototyping service in affordable price.

 

 

 

R307 fingerprint module:

 

R307 Fingerprint Module consists of optical fingerprint sensor, high-speed DSP processor, high-performance fingerprint alignment algorithm, high-capacity FLASH chips and other hardware and software composition, stable performance, simple structure, with fingerprint entry, image processing, fingerprint matching, search and template storage and other functions.

 

 

R307 is a finger print sensor module with TTL UART interface. The user can store the finger print data in the module and can configure it in 1:1 or 1: N mode for identifying the person. The FP module can directly interface with 3v and 5v Microcontroller. A logic level converter (like MAX232) is required for interfacing with PC.

 

Features:-

 

Supply voltage: DC 4.2 ~ 6.0VSupply current: Working current: 50mA (typical) Peak current: 80mAFingerprint image input time: <0.3 secondsMatching method: Comparison method (1: 1)Search method (1: N)Storage capacity: 127 piecesCommunication baud rate (UART): (9600xN) bps, default: 57600bps 

The R307 fingerprint module has two interface TTL UART and USB2.0, USB2.0 interface can be connected to the computer; RS232 interface is a TTL level, the default baud rate is 57600, can be changed, refer to a communication protocol; can And microcontroller, such as ARM, DSP and other serial devices with a connection, 3.3V and 5V microcontroller can be connected directly.

 

 

 

Operation Principle:

 

Fingerprint processing includes two parts: fingerprint enrollment and fingerprint matching (the matching can be 1:1 or 1:N). When enrolling, user needs to enter the finger two times. The system will process the two-time finger images, generate a template of the finger based on processing results and store the template. When matching, user enters the finger through optical sensor and system will generate a template of the finger and compare it with templates of the finger library.

 

 

For 1:1 matching, system will compare the live finger with specific template designated in the Module; for 1:N matching, or searching, system will search the whole finger library for the matching finger. In both circumstances, system will return the matching result, success or failure.

 

 

 

Interfacing with Arduino (Circuit diagram):

 

Fingerprint sensor support two logic 3.3 and 5volt which can be set by the onboard fingerprint sensor jumper. We are using the sensor with Arduino uno which works on logic 5v.

 

 

Touch is for touch detection, you can interface it with led to glow while enrolling finger.

 

 

 

Enrollment the fingerprints:

 

The sensor has a syntax to store the data, which is initialized by AT commands through serial monitor. For ease whole the code is written in C language and performs the same action but for this you need Adafruit fingerprint sensor library.

 

 

To enroll the fingerprints connect the sensor to Arduino and upload the enrollment code choosing the right COM port. Then go to the serial monitor and check the sensor detection and working. Now to enroll the finger data choose the location by sending 1-127 numbers on the serial monitor. Then follow the instructions as displayed on serial monitor. It take two images of same finger to enroll properly. So you have to use the same finger two times for a successful image capture.

CODE
#include <Adafruit_Fingerprint.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>   // SoftwareSerial(rxPin, txPin, inverse_logic)
SoftwareSerial mySerial(2, 3); //you can change them if it is not working on 2 or 3

Adafruit_Fingerprint finger = Adafruit_Fingerprint(&mySerial);

uint8_t id;

void setup()  
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  while (!Serial);  // For Yun/Leo/Micro/Zero/...
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("\n\nFingerprint sensor enrollment");

  // set the data rate for the sensor serial port
  finger.begin(57600);
  
  if (finger.verifyPassword()) {
    Serial.println("Found fingerprint sensor!");
  } else {
    Serial.println("Did not find fingerprint sensor :(");
    while (1) { delay(1); }
  }
}

uint8_t readnumber(void) {
  uint8_t num = 0;
  
  while (num == 0) {
    while (! Serial.available());
    num = Serial.parseInt();
  }
  return num;
}

void loop()                     // program wil repeat this part (loop here)
{
  Serial.println("Ready to enroll a fingerprint!");
  Serial.println("Please type in the ID # (from 1 to 127) you want to save this finger as...");
  id = readnumber();
  if (id == 0) {// ID #0 not allowed, try again!
     return;
  }
  Serial.print("Enrolling ID #");
  Serial.println(id);
  
  while (!  getFingerprintEnroll() );
}

uint8_t getFingerprintEnroll() {

  int p = -1;
  Serial.print("Waiting for valid finger to enroll as #"); Serial.println(id);
  while (p != FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    p = finger.getImage();
    switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image taken");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER:
      Serial.println(".");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEFAIL:
      Serial.println("Imaging error");
      break;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      break;
    }
  }

  // OK success!

  p = finger.image2Tz(1);
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image converted");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEMESS:
      Serial.println("Image too messy");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_FEATUREFAIL:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_INVALIDIMAGE:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }
  
  Serial.println("Remove finger");
  delay(2000);
  p = 0;
  while (p != FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER) {
    p = finger.getImage();
  }
  Serial.print("ID "); Serial.println(id);
  p = -1;
  Serial.println("Place same finger again");
  while (p != FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    p = finger.getImage();
    switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image taken");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER:
      Serial.print(".");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEFAIL:
      Serial.println("Imaging error");
      break;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      break;
    }
  }

  // OK success!

  p = finger.image2Tz(2);
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image converted");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEMESS:
      Serial.println("Image too messy");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_FEATUREFAIL:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_INVALIDIMAGE:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }
  
  // OK converted!
  Serial.print("Creating model for #");  Serial.println(id);
  
  p = finger.createModel();
  if (p == FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    Serial.println("Prints matched!");
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR) {
    Serial.println("Communication error");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_ENROLLMISMATCH) {
    Serial.println("Fingerprints did not match");
    return p;
  } else {
    Serial.println("Unknown error");
    return p;
  }   
  
  Serial.print("ID "); Serial.println(id);
  p = finger.storeModel(id);
  if (p == FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    Serial.println("Stored!");
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR) {
    Serial.println("Communication error");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_BADLOCATION) {
    Serial.println("Could not store in that location");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_FLASHERR) {
    Serial.println("Error writing to flash");
    return p;
  } else {
    Serial.println("Unknown error");
    return p;
  }   
}

Matching the fingerprints:

 

Now you can use the fingerprints in different programs to give access to some port or data. Here is simple program that will turn on the Arduino onboard led connected to pin D12.

 

 

On the serial monitor you can see the result in real time. It will also shows the number of total finger print data present in the flash of sensor. There are many control options and features available for the same sensor you can explore the more in the data sheet given here.

 

 


 

CODE
#include <Adafruit_Fingerprint.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

SoftwareSerial mySerial(2, 3);

Adafruit_Fingerprint finger = Adafruit_Fingerprint(&mySerial);

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  while (!Serial);  // For Yun/Leo/Micro/Zero/...
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("fingertest");
  pinMode(12, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(11, OUTPUT);





  // set the data rate for the sensor serial port
  finger.begin(57600);

  if (finger.verifyPassword()) {
    Serial.println("Found fingerprint sensor!");
  } else {
    Serial.println("Did not find fingerprint sensor :(");
    while (1) {
      delay(1);
    }
  }

  finger.getTemplateCount();
  Serial.print("Sensor contains "); Serial.print(finger.templateCount); Serial.println(" templates");
  Serial.println("Waiting for valid finger...");
}

void loop()                     // run over and over again

{
  getFingerprintIDez();
  delay(50);            //don't ned to run this at full speed.
  digitalWrite(12, LOW);
  digitalWrite(11, LOW);
}

uint8_t getFingerprintID() {
  uint8_t p = finger.getImage();
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image taken");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER:
      Serial.println("No finger detected");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEFAIL:
      Serial.println("Imaging error");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }

  // OK success!

  p = finger.image2Tz();
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image converted");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEMESS:
      Serial.println("Image too messy");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_FEATUREFAIL:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_INVALIDIMAGE:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }

  // OK converted!
  p = finger.fingerFastSearch();
  if (p == FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    Serial.println("Found a print match!");
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR) {
    Serial.println("Communication error");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_NOTFOUND) {
    Serial.println("Did not find a match");
    return p;
  } else {
    Serial.println("Unknown error");
    return p;
  }
  {digitalWrite(11, HIGH);
  delay(3000);
  digitalWrite(11, LOW);
  Serial.print("Not Found"); 
  Serial.print("Error"); 
  return finger.fingerID;
 }

  // found a match!
  Serial.print("Found ID #"); Serial.print(finger.fingerID);
  Serial.print(" with confidence of "); Serial.println(finger.confidence);

  return finger.fingerID;
}

// returns -1 if failed, otherwise returns ID #
int getFingerprintIDez() {
  uint8_t p = finger.getImage();
  if (p != FINGERPRINT_OK)  return -1;

  p = finger.image2Tz();
  if (p != FINGERPRINT_OK)  return -1;
  
  p = finger.fingerFastSearch();
  if (p != FINGERPRINT_OK)  return -1; 
  

  // found a match!

  {
    digitalWrite(12, HIGH);
    delay(3000);
    digitalWrite(12, LOW);
    Serial.print("Found ID #"); Serial.print(finger.fingerID);
    Serial.print(" with confidence of "); Serial.println(finger.confidence);
    
    
  
  }   }

My Arduino Design:

 

 

Previously I made this Arduino UNO compatible board which has a lot more options than a simple development board. You can directly plug a lot of common sensors, displays and modules. In this development board bluetooth, NRF24 radio trans-receiver and USB to serial outer port is available. 

Code

 

Enrollment

Arduino

CODE
#include <Adafruit_Fingerprint.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>   // SoftwareSerial(rxPin, txPin, inverse_logic)
SoftwareSerial mySerial(2, 3); //you can change them if it is not working on 2 or 3

Adafruit_Fingerprint finger = Adafruit_Fingerprint(&mySerial);

uint8_t id;

void setup()  
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  while (!Serial);  // For Yun/Leo/Micro/Zero/...
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("\n\nFingerprint sensor enrollment");

  // set the data rate for the sensor serial port
  finger.begin(57600);
  
  if (finger.verifyPassword()) {
    Serial.println("Found fingerprint sensor!");
  } else {
    Serial.println("Did not find fingerprint sensor :(");
    while (1) { delay(1); }
  }
}

uint8_t readnumber(void) {
  uint8_t num = 0;
  
  while (num == 0) {
    while (! Serial.available());
    num = Serial.parseInt();
  }
  return num;
}

void loop()                     // program wil repeat this part (loop here)
{
  Serial.println("Ready to enroll a fingerprint!");
  Serial.println("Please type in the ID # (from 1 to 127) you want to save this finger as...");
  id = readnumber();
  if (id == 0) {// ID #0 not allowed, try again!
     return;
  }
  Serial.print("Enrolling ID #");
  Serial.println(id);
  
  while (!  getFingerprintEnroll() );
}

uint8_t getFingerprintEnroll() {

  int p = -1;
  Serial.print("Waiting for valid finger to enroll as #"); Serial.println(id);
  while (p != FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    p = finger.getImage();
    switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image taken");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER:
      Serial.println(".");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEFAIL:
      Serial.println("Imaging error");
      break;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      break;
    }
  }

  // OK success!

  p = finger.image2Tz(1);
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image converted");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEMESS:
      Serial.println("Image too messy");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_FEATUREFAIL:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_INVALIDIMAGE:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }
  
  Serial.println("Remove finger");
  delay(2000);
  p = 0;
  while (p != FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER) {
    p = finger.getImage();
  }
  Serial.print("ID "); Serial.println(id);
  p = -1;
  Serial.println("Place same finger again");
  while (p != FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    p = finger.getImage();
    switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image taken");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER:
      Serial.print(".");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEFAIL:
      Serial.println("Imaging error");
      break;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      break;
    }
  }

  // OK success!

  p = finger.image2Tz(2);
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image converted");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEMESS:
      Serial.println("Image too messy");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_FEATUREFAIL:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_INVALIDIMAGE:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }
  
  // OK converted!
  Serial.print("Creating model for #");  Serial.println(id);
  
  p = finger.createModel();
  if (p == FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    Serial.println("Prints matched!");
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR) {
    Serial.println("Communication error");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_ENROLLMISMATCH) {
    Serial.println("Fingerprints did not match");
    return p;
  } else {
    Serial.println("Unknown error");
    return p;
  }   
  
  Serial.print("ID "); Serial.println(id);
  p = finger.storeModel(id);
  if (p == FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    Serial.println("Stored!");
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR) {
    Serial.println("Communication error");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_BADLOCATION) {
    Serial.println("Could not store in that location");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_FLASHERR) {
    Serial.println("Error writing to flash");
    return p;
  } else {
    Serial.println("Unknown error");
    return p;
  }   
}

Finger detect Main

Arduino

CODE
#include <Adafruit_Fingerprint.h>
#include <SoftwareSerial.h>

SoftwareSerial mySerial(2, 3);

Adafruit_Fingerprint finger = Adafruit_Fingerprint(&mySerial);

void setup()
{
  Serial.begin(9600);
  while (!Serial);  // For Yun/Leo/Micro/Zero/...
  delay(100);
  Serial.println("fingertest");
  pinMode(12, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(11, OUTPUT);





  // set the data rate for the sensor serial port
  finger.begin(57600);

  if (finger.verifyPassword()) {
    Serial.println("Found fingerprint sensor!");
  } else {
    Serial.println("Did not find fingerprint sensor :(");
    while (1) {
      delay(1);
    }
  }

  finger.getTemplateCount();
  Serial.print("Sensor contains "); Serial.print(finger.templateCount); Serial.println(" templates");
  Serial.println("Waiting for valid finger...");
}

void loop()                     // run over and over again

{
  getFingerprintIDez();
  delay(50);            //don't ned to run this at full speed.
  digitalWrite(12, LOW);
  digitalWrite(11, LOW);
}

uint8_t getFingerprintID() {
  uint8_t p = finger.getImage();
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image taken");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_NOFINGER:
      Serial.println("No finger detected");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEFAIL:
      Serial.println("Imaging error");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }

  // OK success!

  p = finger.image2Tz();
  switch (p) {
    case FINGERPRINT_OK:
      Serial.println("Image converted");
      break;
    case FINGERPRINT_IMAGEMESS:
      Serial.println("Image too messy");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR:
      Serial.println("Communication error");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_FEATUREFAIL:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    case FINGERPRINT_INVALIDIMAGE:
      Serial.println("Could not find fingerprint features");
      return p;
    default:
      Serial.println("Unknown error");
      return p;
  }

  // OK converted!
  p = finger.fingerFastSearch();
  if (p == FINGERPRINT_OK) {
    Serial.println("Found a print match!");
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_PACKETRECIEVEERR) {
    Serial.println("Communication error");
    return p;
  } else if (p == FINGERPRINT_NOTFOUND) {
    Serial.println("Did not find a match");
    return p;
  } else {
    Serial.println("Unknown error");
    return p;
  }
  {digitalWrite(11, HIGH);
  delay(3000);
  digitalWrite(11, LOW);
  Serial.print("Not Found"); 
  Serial.print("Error"); 
  return finger.fingerID;
 }

  // found a match!
  Serial.print("Found ID #"); Serial.print(finger.fingerID);
  Serial.print(" with confidence of "); Serial.println(finger.confidence);

  return finger.fingerID;
}

// returns -1 if failed, otherwise returns ID #
int getFingerprintIDez() {
  uint8_t p = finger.getImage();
  if (p != FINGERPRINT_OK)  return -1;

  p = finger.image2Tz();
  if (p != FINGERPRINT_OK)  return -1;
  
  p = finger.fingerFastSearch();
  if (p != FINGERPRINT_OK)  return -1; 
  

  // found a match!

  {
    digitalWrite(12, HIGH);
    delay(3000);
    digitalWrite(12, LOW);
    Serial.print("Found ID #"); Serial.print(finger.fingerID);
    Serial.print(" with confidence of "); Serial.println(finger.confidence);
    
    
  
  }   }

The article was first published in hackster, May 15,  2023

cr: https://www.hackster.io/sainisagar7294/interfacing-fingerprint-sensor-with-arduino-263414

author: sagar saini

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